Tag Archives: JFK acoustic evidence

JFK: Altering and Hiding the Evidence

JFK: Altering the Evidence

Richard Charnin
Jan.16, 2015
Updated: Sept.9, 2015
JFK Blog Posts
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Reclaiming Science:The JFK Conspiracy

This is a quick summary of links to the massive evidence that has been altered and hidden.

1. The bullet which entered JFK’s back 5.5″ below the collar never exited. Therefore the Warren Commission’s Single Bullet Theory is a total fraud.
FBI O’Neill:
FBI Sibert:
Gerald Ford:

2. The Zapruder film was altered to hide the fatal head wound and limo stop.
Doug Horne:

3. Dealey Plaza witness testimony was misrepresented.

4. The medical evidence was hidden and altered.
Dr. Charles Crenshaw:
Doug Horne:

5. The Oswald backyard photos were proven to be fakes:

6. The Altgens6 TSBD photo showing Oswald in the doorway was altered:

7. The Warren Commission claimed Oswald shot Tippit (who died instantly) at 1:16pm. But at least 10 eyewitnesses said it was no later than 1:06. Since Oswald was seen outside his apartment at 1:04 (0.9 miles from the scene of the murder), the WC had to extend the time of Tippit’s death. The Smoking Gun: Tippit was declared dead at the hospital at 1:16.

8.  The HSCA ignored 100 Convenient Suspicious and Unnatural Deaths. The HSCA statistician testified that the witness universe was “unknowable”. But we KNOW that there were 552 Warren Commission witnesses. We can ESTIMATE the number of witnesses called to testify at the Garrison/Shaw trial, the Church Senate Intelligence hearings and HSCA.

9. Simkin JFK Index: Includes 656 JFK-related important figures, witnesses and possible conspirators. Seventy died suspiciously. Forty-four deaths were ruled unnatural, including 22 homicides.

JFK Index……Total…Suspicious deaths
Key figures…..190……10….5.3%

The probability of 44 unnatural deaths among the 656 witnesses from 1964-78 is P= E-41 (one in 1 trillion trillion trillion). The probability of 22 homicidesis P= 6.4E-24 (one in 150 billion trillion).

10: London Sunday Times Actuary: Calculated 100,000 trillion to one odds against 18 material witnesses dying within three years of the assassination. The HSCA statistician falsely claimed that it was impossible to calculate the odds.

11. Warren Commission: did not disclose that Oswald worked for the ONI,CIA and FBI:

12. 7.65 Mauser: first identified by four DPD; later morphed to a Carcano.

13. The Secret Service: removed JFK protection

14. Acoustic Evidence: proved a Grassy Knoll shooter:

15. Roger Craig (Dallas sheriff): The Warren Commission ignored his testimony that he saw Oswald get into a Rambler at 12:45. Captain Will Fritz lied when he testified that Craig was not in his office when Oswald confirmed that the Rambler was owned by Ruth Paine. The WC contrived the fiction that Oswald left the TSBD three minutes after the assassination and got in a bus and cab.

16. Oswald palm prints: planted at the morgue:

17. Mac Wallace: fingerprints on the 6th floor of the TSBD were hidden:

18. Carolyn Arnold: A TSBD employee, was never interviewed by the Warren Commission. She stated in an FBI interview that she saw Oswald on the first floor of the TSBD at 12:25, five minutes before the assassination.

19. Mary Moorman’s “Badgeman” Polaroid photo
Polaroid photos were harder to forge and alter than other films because of their instantaneous development. The Moorman photo serves as a Rosetta Stone which has allowed researchers to determine whether the Zapruder, Nix and Muchmore films depict altered frames. The photo contradicts the Zapruder Film and shows it has been altered. The field of view shows her to be in one place while the Zapruder film has her in another place several feet away.


Inside the ARRB
Hit List
They Killed our President
Survivors Guilt
Who’s Who in JFK Assassination
Reclaiming Science: The JFK Conspiracy

Rush to Judgment
Forgive My Grief
On the Trail of the Assassins
JFK and the Unspeakable
The Last Investigation
Accessories After the Fact
Best Evidence
Last Word

JFK: The CIA, Vietnam and the Plot to Assassinate JFK
The Man Who Killed JFK
LBJ: The Mastermind
David Ferrie
Dr. Mary’s Monkey
Me and Lee
Mary’s Mosaic
Echo from Dealey Plaza
Oswald and the CIA
Reclaiming Parkland
The Men on the 6th floor
Into the Nightmare
Girl on the Stairs
Nightmare in Dallas


Posted by on January 16, 2015 in JFK


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JFK: “Double Bang” Witness Testimony

JFK Witness Testimony on Hearing a Double Bang: A Math Analysis

Richard Charnin
Feb. 8, 2014
Updated: May 21, 2014

Click Reclaiming Science:The JFK Conspiracy to look inside the book.

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In the article The Guns of Dealey Plaza by John S. Craig, the author lists 22 individuals who testified they heard a “double bang”: the final two of three shots occurred nearly simultaneously.

If Oswald was the only shooter there would have been at least 2.3 seconds between shots, assuming he used the telescopic sight found on the Mannlicher Carcano.

If we assume a 0.50 probability that a given witness was correct in hearing two shots fired nearly simultaneously, then the probability of the witness being mistaken is also 0.50. The probability that ALL 22 witnesses listed below were mistaken is
P= 0.5^22 = 0.000000238 or 1 in 4 million.That is also the probability that Oswald fired the shots, since the Carcano was a bolt-action rifle and incapable of being fired at “double-bang” speed.

Andrew Mason determined that at least 44 witnesses heard a double bang. The probability all 44 would be mistaken is P=.5^44 = 5.7E-14 (1 in 17 trillion).

Let N = the number of witnesses who claimed shots came from the grassy knoll.
N Probability
22 2.4E-07
33 1.2E-10
44 5.7E-14

The Double Bang
John Craig wrote:
The Warren Commission’s official conclusion concerning the “Number of Shots” states that all the shots were fired from the sixth-floor window at the southeast corner of the Texas School Book Depository Building. [58] The Commission stated that a consensus among witnesses at the scene was that three shots were fired, though some heard two shots and others heard four and perhaps as many as five or six shots. [59]

Numerous descriptions of the last two shots by so many witnesses leaves doubt as to whether Oswald was physically capable of firing both of the shots that so many characterized as being shot almost simultaneously, if not “automatically.”

It was the Commission’s belief that (a) one shot passed through the President’s neck and caused all of Governor Connally’s wounds, (b) a subsequent shot hit the President’s head, (c) no other shot struck any part of the automobile, and (d) three shots were fired with one missing, though which one missed is unknown. [60] “Two bullets probably caused all the wounds suffered by President Kennedy and Governor Connally. Since the preponderance of the evidence indicated that three shots were fired, the Commission concluded that one shot probably missed the Presidential limousine and its occupants, and that the three shots were fired in a time period ranging from approximately 4.8 to in excess of seven seconds.” [61]

FBI tests for the Warren Commission found that a 6.5 Mannlicher Carcano, bolt-action rifle, Model 91/38 required a minimum of 2.3 seconds to fire two shots. [62] The HSCA made tests in which the telescopic sight was removed to see how fast the rifle could be fired without aiming. Its tests resulted in firings of 1.65, 1.75, and just over two seconds. [63] The only way that the rifle could be fired this quickly was to simply maneuver the bolt action as fast as possible and shoot. The tests were not done with Oswald’s Mannlicher Carcano. Whether Oswald’s rifle was in a condition where it could be tested is questionable since “the pressure to open the bolt was so great that we tended to move the rifle off the target,” according to one of the Warren Commission testers. [64]

If Oswald were the only shooter there would have to be at least 2.3 seconds between shots, assuming he used the telescopic sight found on the Mannlicher Carcano. The three shots that the Warren Commission claimed were fired from Oswald’s rifle could not have been shot faster than 6.9 seconds, including the minimum of 2.3 seconds to set for the first shot. Secret Service Agent Roy Kellerman described the shots as a “flurry.” Two of the shots were often described by witnesses as so closely spaced that they seemed “simultaneous” and had “practically no time element between them.” Additionally, there is a substantial amount of testimony, presented in this article, that describes the later shots as sounding different from the first shot. Governor Connally’s initial reaction to the gunfire was “that there were either two or three people involved or more in this or someone was shooting with an automatic rifle.” [65]

A double sound, or bang, is described by three Secret Service agents. Two of these agents sat within feet of Kennedy as occupants of the limousine. A double shot was reported by one of the witnesses standing on the overpass.

1. Special Agent William Greer, the limousine driver, testified that “the last two shots seemed to be just simultaneously, one behind the other.” [66].

2. Secret Service Roy Kellerman sat next to Greer and was intimately familiar with the sound of weapons. Kellerman testified: ” Let me give you an illustration … You have heard the sound barrier, of a plane breaking the sound barrier, bang, bang? That is it. It was like a doublebang — bang, bang.” [67]

3. Special Agent George Hickey (in reference to the second and third shots). “At the moment he was almost sitting erect I heard two reports, which I thought were shots and that appeared to me completely different in sound than the first report and were in such rapid succession that there seemed to be practically no time element between them.” [80]

4. Special Agent Clint Hill told the Commission that the second noise he heard was different from the first shot ” … like the sound of shooting a revolver into something hard… almost a double sound.” [69]

5. S.M. Holland carefully watched the motorcade from the railroad overpass. He heard four shots with the third and fourth sounding like a “double shot.” He thought some of the shots came from behind the fence on the grassy knoll.

6. Deputy Sheriff Roger Craig: “The first shot … sort of like it reverberated … well, it was quite a pause between there [the first and second shots] … It could have been a little longer [than two or three seconds]… ” Between the second and third shots there was “no more than two seconds. It was–they were real rapid.” [71]

6. Joe R. Molina, witness “… Of course, the first shot was fired then there was an interval between the first and second, longer than the second and third.” [72]

7. DPD Seymour Weitzman. “First one, then the second two seemed to be simultaneously.” [73]

8. Ladybird Johnson. ” … suddenly there was a sharp loud report–a shot. It seemed to me to come from the right, above my shoulder, from a building. Then a moment and then two more shots in rapid succession.” [74]

9. Secret Service Special Agent Forrest V. Sorrels. “There was to me about twice as much time between the first and second shots as there was between the second and third shots.” [75]

10. Congressman Ralph W. Yarborough. “… by my estimate–to me there seemed to be a longer time between the first and second shots, a much shorter time between the second and third shots…

11. Dallas Mayor Earle Cabell. “There was a longer pause between the first and second shots than there was between the second and third shots. They were in rather rapid succession.” [77]

12. Secret Service Special Agent Sam A. Kinney. “I saw the President lean toward the left and appeared to have grabbed his chest with his right hand. There was a second of pause and then two more shots were heard … ” [78]

13. Special Agent William A. McIntyre. “The Presidential vehicle was approximately 200 feet from the underpass when the first shot was fired, followed in quick succession by two more.

14. Special Agent Warren W. Taylor. “In the instant that my left foot touched the ground, I heard two more bangs and realized that they must be gun shots.” [81]

15. Linda Willis. “Yes, I heard one. Then there was a little bit of time, and then there were two real fast bullets together. When the first one hit, well, the President turned from waving to the people, and he grabbed his throat, and he kind of slumped forward, and then I couldn’t tell where the second shot went.” [82]

16. Special Agent Rufus Youngblood. “There seemed to be a longer span of time between the first and the second shot than there was between the second and third shot.” [83] ” … from the beginning at the sound of the first shot to the second or third shot, happened with a few seconds.” [84]

17. Robert Jackson. “I would say to me it seemed like three or four seconds between the first and the second, and between the second and third, well, I guess two seconds, they were very close together … ” [85]

18. Arnold Rowland. “The actual time between the reports I would say now, after having had time to consider the six seconds between the first and second report and two between the second and third.” [86]

19. Luke Mooney. “… The second and third shot was pretty close together, but there was a short lapse there between the first and second shot.” [87]

20. Ms. Mitchell (Mary Ann Mitchell). “… there were three—the second and third being closer together than the first and second … ” [88]

21. Lee Bowers “I heard three shots. One, then a slight pause, then two very close together … also reverberation from the shots.” [89]

22. Jean Hill. “There were three shots — one right after the other, and a distinct pause, or just a moment’s pause, and I heard more … ” And concerning the shots that followed the first three Ms. Hill said they were “quicker — more automatic.” [90]


Posted by on February 8, 2014 in JFK


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JFK Assassination: Mathematical Proof of a Grassy Knoll Shooter

JFK Assassination: Mathematical Proof of a Grassy Knoll Shooter

Richard Charnin
Feb 5, 2014
Updated: June 8, 2014

Click Reclaiming Science:The JFK Conspiracy to look inside the book.

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The corporate media never discusses the HSCA conclusion of a probable conspiracy based on overwhelming eyewitness testimony and scientific acoustic evidence of shooters at the Grassy Knoll. Warren Commission apologists are relentless in their shameless promotion of the ridiculous, discredited Lone Nut Gunman and Single Bullet Theory.

The General Problem
1) n witnesses claim they heard, saw or smelled shots from the Grassy Knoll
2) P is a probability estimate that a given witness would be correct
3) Witness observations are independent events
4) The probability PM that a given witness is MISTAKEN: PM = 1 – P
5) The probability PA that ALL n witnesses are MISTAKEN: PA = PM^n

This is an update to the original post which is referenced in

Dealey Plaza witness survey data is in the JFKCalc spreadsheet:

This article discusses the importance of independent, corroborating witness evidence in a court of law.

My adjusted survey, which includes witnesses cited by Feldman and Galanor, indicates that at least 93 heard or saw shots fired from the Grassy Knoll; 45 said the TSBD.

Researcher Harold Feldman wrote that of 121 eyewitnesses: 51 (42%) said shots came from the Grassy Knoll area, 32 from the TSBD, and 38 had no opinion.

Given P = 0.42 is probability of a witness being correct in stating that shots came from the Knoll, then the probability PM = 0.58 = 1-.42 that the witness was mistaken.The joint probability PA that ALL 51 witnesses were mistaken and there was NOT a Grassy Knoll shooter is 0.58 to the 51st power.
PA = 0.58^51 = 8.6E-13 = 0.000000000000861 or of 1 in 1,161,909,568,739 or 1 in 1.16 trillion.

Therefore, the probability PS that there was a Grassy Knoll shooter is PS = 1-PA = 0.999999999999139

If we exclude the 38 witnesses who had no opinion as to the origin of the shots, then 51 of 83 (62%) said shots came from the Grassy Knoll and there is a 38% probability that a given witness would be mistaken. The probability that ALL 51 witnesses would be mistaken is much lower: PA = 0.38^51 = 3.71E-22
PA= 1 in 2,697,966,622,402,536,000,000 or 1 in 2.7 billion trillion!

Of course, if just ONE witness was correct in observing a shot from the Grassy Knoll, then all 51 were correct. Therefore, the Warren Commission’s conclusion that Lee Harvey Oswald was a Lone Gunman shooting from the Texas Book Depository was bogus.

Summary of Surveys

Survey..........Feldman McAdams Galanor Adjusted

Total Asked…………121 241 216 223
Total Opinions……….83 100 110 133
Grassy Knoll…………51. 35. 52. 84
Book Depository…….32. 61. 48. 36
Both TB and GK………0.. 2.. 5.. 9
Other locations………..0.. 2.. 4.. 4
No opinion……………38. 69. 37. 36
Not asked……………..0. 72. 70. 54

GK % of Opinions……61. 35. 47. 63
TB % of Opinions……39. 61. 44. 27
Probability ALL GK witnesses mistaken:
Probability……….E-22 E-07 E-17 E-43

John McAdams
Of 241 total witnesses, 102 had an opinion on the origin of the shots. Sixty-three (63) said they came from the TSBD and 37 from the Grassy Knoll.  The probability that ALL  37 witnesses were mistaken in claiming that shots came from the Grassy Knoll is 3.76E-08 or 1 in 26 million!

Stewart Galanor
How the Warren Commission and the House Select Committee on Assassinations
minipulated evidence to dismiss witness accounts of the assassination.

Of the 216 interviewed, 52 heard at least one shot from the knoll, 48 from the TSBD, 5 from both locations, 4 elsewhere. The probability PA that 52 witnesses who said shots were fired from the Grassy Knoll would ALL be MISTAKEN is E-17 (1 in 100,000 trillion).

Adjusted Totals
A total of 224 witnesses were asked where the shots came from. Of the 133 who had an opinion, 84 said the Grassy Knoll; 36 said the TSBD; 9 both locations; 4 said elsewhere, 37 had no opinion.

The probability analysis was posted in and elicited the following comments:

Acoustic Evidence
In 1978 at the HSCA, an analysis of gunshots recorded on a DPD dictabelt was presented by engineers from Bolt, Beraneck and Newman. The study indicated that there was a 96% probability that at least 6 sharp impulses occurred at 12:30 – the exact time of the shots. At least three were from in front of the limo at the Grassy Knoll. The evidence forced the HSCA to conclude that the assassination was “probably” a conspiracy. It was a “limited hangout”. There has been no follow-up investigation.

Sounds of Silence
“The conclusion of four separate shots coincides with 4 impacts visible in the Z-film. The acoustic impulses were retested in a 2001 investigation (‘Echo Correlation Analysis and the Acoustic Evidence in the Kennedy Assassination Revisited’) by D.B. Thomas, published in the Journal Science and Justice, Vol. 41, p. 21. The impulses are shown below, with the four highest amplitude peaks associated with rifle muzzle blasts.

The hypergeometric p-function was used for differing weighting factor distribution sets, H{M..N, n, i} to assess significance or likelihood of occurrence. It’s based on the no. of echo ‘windows’ M, with each spanning 190msec (total time) at 2msec width per window and n for assigned impulses in the evidence pattern, with ‘i’ the “coincident impulses” or those matching the original (11/22/63)evidence and the test result. The question was whether a succession of first impulses of given amplitude could be manifesting a signal or was merely random noise.

Thomas found that for a given configuration for 2 motorcycles at designated locations, 1 for (GK) shooter location and one for alignment of muzzle blasts with one pair of echoes, the p -value is 0.000012 or about 1 in 100,000 against the null hypothesis, i.e. that the impulses were from random noise. An alternative way to put this is that the odds are 100,000 to 1 in favor of the impulses comprising actual rifle shots.”

David Lifton: #5 man
In 1965, assassination researcher and author David Lifton (“Best Evidence”) analyzed the famous Mary Moorman photo. He discovered a figure holding an object behind the fence on the Grassy Knoll. The image was the fifth, final and clearest image of the subject identified in the photo. Later, the figure was identified as a man by 10 independent photographic experts. Each signed statements to that effect and none were told that the photo was taken in Dealey Plaza.


Posted by on February 5, 2014 in JFK


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