3. All Parkland doctors and witnesses said they observed a small throat entrance wound and a massive head exit wound. This proves there were at least two shots from the front and destroys the Single Bullet Theory.
LN: The Parkland doctors were mistaken. They never saw the head wound. http://img11.imageshack.us/img11/8804/backofheadorangesizedwo.jpg
8. The figure in the Altgens6 photo sitting in front whose face is cut out is Billy Lovelady. The cutout is not an arm. No one holds their arms VERTICALLY OVER the eyes to shade them; if they did, they would not be able to see. We hold our arm(s) HORIZONTALLY ABOVE our eyes to shade them from the sun.
LN: That is not a cutout of Lovelady. It was just a photo processing glitch. http://betshort.com/loveos.gif
10. Wesley Frazier testified five different times that Lovelady was standing in front of him on the STEPS of the TSBD. If so, Lovelady could not have been Doorman who was standing on the TOP level (first floor).
LN: Frazier was mistaken in all five statements. https://richardcharnin.wordpress.com/2014/08/07/10851/
13. Doug Horne (ARRB) and Dino Brugioni (world class photo interpreter) proved that the Zapruder film was altered and the chain of custody was broken. The film does not show the JFK Limo stop seen by 33 witnesses.
LN: Horne and Brugioni are mistaken. The Limo never stopped. The 33 witnesses were all mistaken. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OGr21FZBVL4
14. The Oswald backyard photos were faked; the face is pasted from the same cutout in each of the four photos.
LN: the fact that there is no change in expression or position is not proof of fakery https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aSmOS3BGFVo
15. Gerald Ford of the Warren Commission moved the back wound (which never exited) up 5” to make it conform to the Magic Bullet exiting the neck.
LN: Ford wanted to fix the error in the evidence and did nothing wrong. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GDNZBfPkbPk
16. The Single Bullet Theory was a contrived farce because the Warren Commission needed to have two bullets cause seven wounds in JFK and Connally.
LN: Arlen Spector would not just make it up. Gerald Ford moved the back wound up a few inches to indicate the true location of the entrance wound at the base of the neck described by Spector. FBI officials Sibert and O’Neill both lied when they claimed there was no exit from the back wound. http://bullet.my3gb.com/images/4-kennedy-magic-bullet.jpg
Finally, view videos of three experts who prove that the film was altered.
The Math Proof
Palamara shows that 33 (56%) of 59 eyewitnesses said the JFK presidential limo came to a FULL STOP, 13 said NEAR STOP and 13 had no opinion. Palamara’s article clearly indicates that 18 witnesses stated the Limo STOPPED, 9 said it came to a STOP, and 6 said it HALTED MOMENTARILY. The witness observations are summarized in the JFKCalc spreadsheet.
The Zapruder film does NOT show a FULL OR NEAR STOP.
What is the probability that ALL 33 witnesses who said the limo came to a FULL stop were mistaken? Let’s assume that P= 0.56 is the probability that a given witness is correct based on the observed statistics. Then P= 1-.56 = 0.44 is the probability that the witness was mistaken.
The probability that ALL 33 witnesses would be mistaken and the Zapruder film was NOT altered is
P= 0.44^33 = 0.000000000001714 or 1 in 583,527,967,610.
That’s 1 in 583 BILLION!
The bottom line:
a) If just ONE eyewitness was correct in observing that the limo came to a FULL STOP, it is proof the Zapruder film WAS altered – and that there was a conspiracy.
b) If just ONE Dealey Plaza witness was correct in observing that shots came from the Grassy Knoll, it is proof that there was a conspiracy.
Andrew Mason on the applicability of witness evidence.
One need not start with the belief that witnesses are reliable at all. Provided there are several independent witnesses, determining a witness’ reliability is simply a matter of seeing how their recollections fit with the rest of the evidence. Subjective techniques for assessing witness accuracy and trustworthiness are fraught with uncertainty.
It is very important to distinguish between the fallibility of a single witness and that of a group of witnesses who independently report observing the same fact. If the witnesses are independent, they will either independently agree on a fact because they observed it or they will be independently mistaken. Where there is more than one way to be mistaken, independent errors will be distributed over the range of all incorrect possibilities.
Dishonesty is an inherently random factor unless there is collusion between witnesses.The testimony of the independently mistaken or dishonest witnesses will necessarily fail to converge on a common explanation. Conversely, the convergence of consistent witness evidence on a particular detail can have only one of two rational explanations: either they all shared a common observation or they are not independent.
This use of corroboration as a technique for assessing reliability does not require subjective assessment of the witness’ demeanour or appearance of trustworthiness. It is not the witness recollection per se that is important. It is the fact that the same witness recollection is produced by multiple independent sources that is key. Juries intuitively understand this and, generally, do not need to have the probabilities quantified. They apply common sense to conclude how unlikely it is that multiple witnesses will independently have with the same recollection of something that they did not actually observe. The mathematics of probability supports our common sense.
———————————————————————- Doug Horne: The Z-film chain of custody and alterations
Douglas P. Horne graduated Cum Laude from Ohio State University in 1974, with a B.A. in History. He served for ten years as a Surface Warfare Officer in the U.S. Navy, and then worked for the Navy for ten more years as a Federal civilian. In 1995 he joined the staff of the President John F. Kennedy “Assassination Records Review Board,” and rose to the position of Chief Analyst for Military Records. In that capacity, he focused on the medical evidence surrounding the JFK autopsy; the Zapruder film; and ensured the release of military records on Cuba and Vietnam. In 2009 he published the extensive five-volume work, Inside the Assassination Records Review Board, which documents the U.S. government’s coverup of the medical evidence surrounding JFK’s assassination, and the alteration of the Zapruder film of President Kennedy’s assassination.
Horne writes: Most Americans don’t know anything about the two significant events involving the famous Zapruder film of President Kennedy’s Assassination that took place back-to-back, on successive nights, at the CIA’s National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC) – in Washington, D.C. – on the weekend immediately following JFK’s assassination. But anyone evenly remotely interested in what is perhaps the key piece of film evidence in the Kennedy assassination – what for decades was viewed as the “bedrock evidence” in the case, the “closest thing to ground truth” – needs to become acquainted with what happened to Abraham Zapruder’s home movie of JFK’s assassination during the three days immediately following President Kennedy’s death. Why?
Because the hottest debate raging within the JFK research community for the past several years is about whether the Zapruder film in the National Archives is an authentic film from which sound, scientific conclusions regarding JFK’s assassination can be divined, or whether it is an altered film indicative of a government cover-up, which yields tainted and suspect information, and leads us to false conclusions, about what happened in Dealey Plaza.
The resolution of this debate hinges on the answers to two essential questions: First, is the film’s chain of custody immediately after the assassination what it has been purported to be for many years, or is it, in reality, quite different? Second, are there visual indications within the film’s imagery which prove it has been tampered with, i.e., altered? If the film’s chain of custody has been misrepresented for decades, and if the opportunity and means existed that weekend to alter the film, then suspect imagery within the film takes on a crucial new level of importance, and is not simply of academic interest.
SUMMARY OF VISUAL INDICATIONS OF ALTERATION
The two NPIC “briefing board events” the weekend following President Kennedy’s assassination have together definitively proven: (1) that the film’s chain of custody is not what we thought it was for decades; and (2) that the film was located that weekend in a facility where the means almost certainly existed to alter its image content.
First, based on Dino Brugioni’s very clear recollections of his NPIC “briefing board event,” the camera-original, 8 mm Zapruder film was not in Chicago, at the LIFE printing plant, on the Saturday night following JFK’s assassination; but rather, was in Washington, D.C. at NPIC on Saturday, 11/23/63, from about 10 PM that night, until 3 or 4 AM the next morning, on Sunday, 11/24/63.
Second, the statements of the Secret Service courier who brought the altered, and reformatted 16 mm wide, unslit, “double 8” Zapruder film back to NPIC on Sunday night, 11/24/63 – “Bill Smith” – revealed to Homer McMahon that the Zapruder film delivered to him for the making of prints had been processed at “Hawkeyeworks,” a state-of-the-art, world class photo laboratory at Kodak headquarters, that was regularly used in support of classified CIA contracts. The two major classified CIA-Kodak contracts at the time were in support of “special orders” for U-2 high-altitude and Corona satellite photography, but the overall physical capabilities of the “Hawkeye Plant” went well beyond these two areas, and included much work in the motion picture field, according to what Mr. Brugioni was told by the Kodak employees who managed the Rochester lab, and who were his points of contact there.
We know from the historical record that the two key statements made by “Bill Smith” about the Zapruder film were outright fabrications – to wit, the original film was not donated to the government for free by Mr. Zapruder; and the camera-original Zapruder film was not developed at “Hawkeyeworks” in Rochester, as Smith had claimed. [Zapruder had negotiated an initial sales contract with LIFE magazine for $50,000.00 on Saturday morning; and the camera-original film had been developed in Dallas, not at “Hawkeyeworks” in Rochester.]
Dino Brugioni’s knowledge of the “Hawkeyeworks” facility in Rochester, gained from Mr. Ed Green of Kodak and others whom he knew at the facility, was that it could indeed process motion picture film, and that the Kodak technicians at the Top Secret laboratory “could do anything” with film. Because “Bill Smith” of the Secret Service delivered a Zapruder film to NPIC on Sunday, 11/24/63, whose format had miraculously been transformed, within 24 hours, from a slit, 8 mm wide “double 8” film, to an unslit, 16 mm wide, “double 8” film, it is reasonable to conclude that the Zapruder film’s image content was indeed altered on Sunday, 11/24/63, and that the alteration occurred at “Hawkeyeworks,” from whence Bill Smith had come with the film, which he readily admitted had been processed at that facility.
For all of the foregoing reasons, it is therefore appropriate to briefly review three of the major indicators that the Zapruder film’s imagery has undergone alteration. ……. The Head Explosion
As discussed earlier in this paper, Dino Brugioni opined during his July 9, 2011 interview with the author that the head explosion seen today in the extant Zapruder film is markedly different from what he saw on 11/23/63, when he worked with what he is certain was the camera-original film. The head explosion he recalls was much bigger than the one seen today in frame 313 of the extant film (going “three or four feet into the air”); was a “white cloud” that did not exhibit any of the pink or red color seen in frame 313 today; and was of such a duration that he is quite sure that in the film he viewed in 1963, there were many more frames than just one graphically depicting the fatal head shot on the film he viewed in 1963. Mr. Brugioni cannot, and does not, accept frame 313 of the extant Zapruder film as an accurate or complete representation of the fatal head shot he saw in the camera-original Zapruder film on the Saturday evening following President Kennedy’s assassination.
He is supported in this view by two other opinions.
Erwin Schwartz, Abraham Zapruder’s business partner, told interviewer Noel Twyman on November 21, 1994 that when he viewed the original film on Friday, November 22, 1963, he saw biological debris from the head explosion propelled to the left rear of the President when he viewed the film. This debris pattern is not visible on the film today, but dovetails with the consistent recollections of motorcycle officer Bobby W. Hargis, who was hit with great force at the time of the head shot by debris travelling to the left rear. 
Similarly, professional surveyors Robert West and Chester Breneman performed the first of several site surveys of Dealey Plaza that they participated in on Monday, November 25, 1963 – for LIFE magazine. Breneman was quoted in the Fort Worth Star-Telegram on April 14, 1978 as saying that in using the color prints of individual Zapruder frames provided by LIFE, he could see in some of the prints “large blobs of blood and brain matter flying from Kennedy’s head to the rear of the car.”  Whether his remembered date for the LIFE-sponsored survey is precisely accurate or not, the important factor here is that he saw debris traveling to the rear of the President in enlargements made from individual frames of the Zapruder film – imagery that is not seen in the extant film today. If his recollection that those images were provided by LIFE was correct, it suggests covert collusion between some at LIFE magazine and the U.S. government – namely, a joint effort to determine exactly what did happen in Dealey Plaza, apparently using frames from the unaltered Zapruder film.
.….. The extant Zapruder film also depicts a large head wound in the top and right side of President Kennedy’s skull – most notably in frames 335 and 337 – that was not seen by any of the treatment staff at Parkand Hospital.
The implication here is that if the true exit wound on President Kennedy’s head can be obscured in the Zapruder film through use of aerial imaging (i.e., self-matting animation, applied to each frame’s image via an animation stand married to an optical printer) – as revealed by the “6K” scans of the 35 mm dupe negative – then the same technique could be used to add a desired exit wound, one consistent with the cover story of a lone shooter firing from behind.
The apparent alteration of the Zapruder film seen in the area of the rear of JFK’s head in the “6K” scans is consistent with the capabilities believed to have been in place at “Hawkeyeworks” in 1963.
To believe that Oswald killed JFK, you must also believe …
1- The single–bullet theory (SBT):
a) Kennedy leaned much further forward than shown in photographs or films,
b) his jacket bunched up much more than shown in a photograph taken less than half a second before he was visible from the sixth–floor window,
c) his shirt bunched up far more than could reasonably have been expected,
d) the bullet’s downward trajectory entered JFK’s back 5.5 inches below the collar,
e) the bullet then changed direction upward and exited JFK’s throat,
f) the bullet proceeded to cause all five of Connally’s wounds,
g) the bullet emerged in pristine condition on a Parkland hospital stretcher.
2- The Warren Commission did not “fudge the evidence” when it changed its original finding that three shots hit JFK to 1) a single bullet struck JFK in the back, exited his throat and caused five additional wounds in Connally, 2) the second shot missed, hit a curb and bystander James Tague on the cheek, and 3) the final shot hit JFK high on the back of the skull.
3- The 90+ eyewitnesses who claimed to have heard gunshots, saw smoke or smelled gunpowder coming from the grassy knoll must have all been mistaken.
4- The 22 Parkland Hospital doctors who claimed there was an entrance wound in President Kennedy’s throat must have all been mistaken.
5- The 44 Doctors and witnesses at Parkland and the autopsy who saw a large exit wound located at the right-rear of Kennedy’s head must have all been mistaken.
6- The Warren Commission said Tippit was shot at 1:16, which was also the time he was declared dead at the hospital The 10+ witnesses who saw or heard shots fired no later than 1:06 must have all been mistaken.
7- The autopsy photograph of a bullet hole in Kennedy’s five inches lower than described in the Warren Report must have been a misprint.
8- Dr Charles Carrico viewed Kennedy’s throat wound before the president’s shirt and tie were removed and said it was located above the shirt. He must have been mistaken.
9- John Connally sat in front of Kennedy and has consistently maintained that he and Kennedy were hit by separate bullets. He must have been mistaken.
10- Nellie Connally sat on her husband’s left and confirmed that they were hit by separate bullets. She must have been mistaken.
11- The fingerprint expert who identified the prints found on the 6th floor of the TSBD to be an exact match of LBJ hit man Mac Wallace must have been mistaken.
12- The Army and FBI experts who claimed that the Mannlicher-Carcano rifle was incapable of accomplishing the shooting must have been mistaken.
13 – Oswald shot JFK from the 6th floor of the TSBD, hid the rifle and ran down to the 2nd floor in a little over a minute where DPD Marion Baker and TSBD manager Truly saw him holding a coke and breathing normally.
14- The witnesses who walked down the stairs immediately after the shooting and did not see or hear anyone must have been mistaken.
15- The large wound in the president’s head displayed all the signs of a soft–nosed bullet. But it must have been caused by a very unusual solid, metal–jacketed bullet.
16- Two witnesses who claimed they saw Oswald carrying a bag that was too small to contain a rifle into the Texas School Book Depository the morning of the assassination must have been mistaken.
17- Connally could hold his hat seconds after being hit by the magic bullet that exited Kennedy’s throat.
18- JFK would fall back and to the left after being hit from behind.
19- Paraffin tests on Oswald’s hands and cheek which indicated he did not fire a rifle on 11/22 must have been incompetently administered.
20- Four police officers who identified the rifle found on the 6th floor of the TSBD as a saw “7.65 Mauser” must have all been mistaken.
21- It was just a macabre coincidence that seven top FBI officials due to testify at HSCA would die within a 6 month period in 1977.
22- Bullets recovered at Dealey Plaza that did not match the Mannlicher-Carcano must have been from a previous shooting incident.
23- It was just a coincidence that Jack Ruby would die from sudden cancer within 29 days of being diagnosed and granted a new trial.
24- Oswald made two of three shots in under six seconds (a feat that expert marksmen could not duplicate) although there was a tree in front of the target, he barely passed his Marine marksmanship test and used an inferior, bolt action rifle with a misaligned scope.
25- Julia Ann Mercer, a witness who claimed in a deposition that she saw a man walking up the grassy knoll carrying a rifle one hour before the assassination, must have been mistaken. She told Jim Garrison that the man waiting in a car looked like Jack Ruby and that her deposition was altered and signature forged. She was not called by the Warren Commission.
26- Although the probability is E-62 (one in a trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion) that 78 of 1400+ material witnesses would die unnaturally in 1964-78, it does not prove a conspiracy.
27- The fact that Fritz’s notes of his interrogation of Oswald did not surface until 1993 was due to incompetence. Oswald said he was “out front with Bill Shelley”.
28- The fact that Oswald was a $200/mo FBI informer and CIA asset and his tax forms were never released is of no consequence.
29- The fact that Gerald Ford of the WC admitted that he moved JFK’s back wound up 5 inches to conform with the Single Bullet Theory does not indicate that he was distorting the record.
30- FBI agents Sibert and O’Neill attended the autopsy and claimed a) that JFK was struck in the back 5 inches below the collar and the bullet did not exit and b) that Gerald Ford committed a crime in moving the back wound up 5 inches. They must have been mistaken.
31- Although over 50 of 122 suspicious JFK deaths were in the Dallas area, it does not indicate that they had a connection to the assassination and must have been a coincidence.
Note: Assuming that the Dallas homicide rate was triple the 1964-78 average National 0.000084 rate, then the probability of 34 ruled homicides among 1400 JFK-related witnesses in 1964-78 is P = 7.60e-17, or 1 in 13,000 trillion. This is conservative. Based on the expected cause of death, approximately 40 of the 88 deaths officially ruled as accidents, suicides, heart attacks, sudden cancers and natural were likely homicides